The England Under-21 international was a late addition to United’s squad on deadline day as moves for Hamza Choudhury of Leicester City and Manchester United’s Brandon Williams failed to materialise earlier in the January window.
After agreeing a deal until the end of the season, former Arsenal and Brazil star Edu said: “Joe is a talented young player and an important member of our first-team squad.
“This can be seen in the number of appearances he has made for us in recent seasons.
“At this stage of his career, we have decided together with Joe, that it will benefit his development greatly to enjoy a loan period playing regular first-team football.
“We thank our counterparts at Newcastle United for their collaboration and we wish Joe all the best with his loan move.”
He said: “Joe is a young player with great ability who is progressing very well and we are happy with his continued development. At this moment in his career, Joe needs to be playing regularly.
“At Newcastle United, he is going to a very good club with a top quality manager and staff.
“We all wish Joe the very best at Newcastle until the end of the season.”